Central Nervous System

Neuropsychiatric disorders are estimated to have the greatest contribution to the total burden of disease compared to other diseases worldwide, including cardiovascular disease or cancer1.

  1. Schizophrenia & Bipolar disorder

    Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder contribute significantly to this burden of disease, with schizophrenia being the fifth leading cause of years lost due to disability among men, and the sixth among women, while bipolar disorder is in the seventh and eighth position, respectively1.

  2. Major depressive disorder

    Major depressive disorder is a chronic, particularly widespread condition resulting in disability. Despite the large number of approved treatments, response rates with initiation treatments are estimated to be approximately 50%, with remission rates ranging from 30% to 40%2.

  3. Generalized anxiety disorder

    The characteristic symptom of generalized anxiety disorder is anxiety, which is generalized and persistent, without necessarily being due to a particular event or situation. As with other anxiety disorders, the dominant symptoms may vary; however, symptoms such as constant feeling of nervousness, tremor, muscle tension, sweating, dizziness, palpitations and epigastric discomfort are common. Also, fears are often expressed that the patient or a close person will soon become ill or will have an accident, and these are usually accompanied by other additional concerns and prejudices. This disorder is more common in women and is often associated with chronic environmental stress. Its course may vary, but it often fluctuates and is chronic3.

  4. Epilepsy

    Epilepsy is the chronic condition where recurrent episodes of epileptic seizures occur due to existing brain impairment. It may appear across the entire age range, from infants to the elderly, and has various causes and manifestations, with many different types of seizures, several recognizable syndromes, but also many others that are inadequately classified. There are many co-morbidities that can complicate the diagnosis and treatment, including learning difficulties, neurological deficits and other developmental conditions, psychological and psychiatric problems, and especially in older age, coexisting conditions4.

  5. Neuropathic pain

    Neuropathic pain is defined as the pain caused by either a peripheral (peripheral neuropathic pain) or central (central neuropathic pain) somatosensory nervous system impairment or disease5.he incidence of neuropathic pain in the general population is 5%6. Neuropathic pain is a clinical symptom rather than a diagnosis, requiring the presence of a clear lesion or disease that meets established neurological diagnostic criteria. The term “lesion” is used either when diagnostic laboratory tests confirm clearly the presence of a malfunction or when there is an obvious injury. The term “disease” is used when the etiology of the lesion is known (e.g. stroke, diabetes mellitus, etc.)7.

The above information is intended for general public information and may not substitute the advice of a physician or other competent healthcare professional in any case whatsoever.

1. Nizar El-Khalili et al. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2012:8 523–536
2. Nizar El-Khalili et al. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology (2010), 13, 917–932
3. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders; World Health Organization 1-267
4. Duncan JS et al. Lancet 2006; 367: 1087–100
5. International Association for the Study of Pain. IASP Pain Terminology/
6. Soulia V et al. NOSILEFTIKI 201 1, 50(2): 147–162
7. Raja et al. in Wall PD, Melzack R (Eds). Textbook of pain. 4th Ed. 1999.;11-57)