The digestive system, which starts from the oral cavity and ends up in the rectum, has as primary function the effective digestion and absorption as well as the elimination of the non-digestible food and waste products of the metabolism.
Numerous diseases involve the digestive system, which require support to improve symptoms, avoid further health problems, maintain good nutritional status, avoid nutritional deficiencies and improve patients’ quality of life.

  1. OIC (Opioid-Induced Constipation)

    OIC (Opioid Induced Constipation) is considered to be a common adverse reaction associated with the administration of opioids for the treatment of pain, which is usually moderate to severe and is associated with cancer or other chronic non-oncological diseases1.

  2. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV)

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common and unpleasant complications following general anesthesia for a surgical procedure2. Persistent or severe PONV may cause medical complications such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and delay in patient gastrointestinal emptying3.The overall incidence of PONV, a key determinant of patient outcome and satisfaction, has been reported to range from 10% to 79%4.

  3. Anal fissure

    An anal fissure is a tear in the inner anal sphincter tissue. It affects people irrespective of their age and gender, while approximately 50% of people aged 20 to 50 years have experienced symptoms of anal fissures at least once in their life. The prevalence of anal fissures in women increases during pregnancy. Hard stools, long-term diarrhea and constipation, which affect the blood flow in the anal area, may cause anal fissures in adults5.

  4. Gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer

    Gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer are serious conditions requiring medical follow-up. They are chronic diseases characterized by the creation of a wound in stomach’s or duodenum’s wall. They are caused when the equilibrium of hydrochloric acid and stomach mucosa is disturbed. For the ulcer, factors such as anxiety, smoking, certain drugs such as aspirin and, in general, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Helicobacter H-pylori and others are implicated.

  5. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    It is the disease manifested by regurgitation (upward movement) of stomach fluids to the esophagus, the tube that transports the food from the mouth to the stomach. It is a very common disease, with the main symptom of disturbing burning in the area of ​​the sternum (retrosternal burning) that occurs after eating and can last for hours. Burning or sour liquids in the mouth can be occurred sometimes, usually after eating too much food and drinking alcohol. However, if the incidence is two or more times during a week, it is very likely that we suffer from Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and a doctor should be visited. It is also known that the severity of symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease is not a criterion for a doctor to assess the severity of the disease. Practically this means that a patient with mild symptoms may have damage to his/her esophagus, known as esophagitis, while someone with severe symptoms suffers from Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease without any damages.

The above is intended for general public information and cannot replace the advice of a physician or other competent healthcare professional.

1. Panchal SJ et al. Int J Clin Pract. 2007; 61:1181-7.
2. Golembiewski J et al. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2005; 62: 1247-60.
3. Muchatuta NA et al. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2009; 5: 21-34.
4. Apfel CC et al. Anesthesiology 1999; 91: 693-700.
5. Masoumeh S et al. Electronic Physician (ISSN: 2008-5842) October 2016, Volume: 8, Issue: 10, Pages: 3035-3041